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NEUROTRANSMITTERS

Neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine and dopamine, are natural brain chemicals that transmit nerve impulses to other nerves and organs. Acetylcholine plays a role in attention and arousal, and also works to activate muscles. It allows you to learn and remember, and to regulate your attention and mood. Acetylcholine increases brain speed. Dopamine positively affects attention, behavior and cognition, learning, memory, mood, movement, and pleasurable reward. It can also reduce carbohydrate cravings. Dopamine increases brain voltage.

NEUROTRANSMITTER PRECURSORS

Below are ingredients that help your brain to make neurotransmitters. The first bullet is a simplified, one-sentence description.


ACETYL-L-CARNITINE
  • Carnitine assists in fatty acid oxidation for energy production, and as acetyl-L-carnitine, it is structurally related to the excitatory neurotransmitter, acetylcholine.
  • Carnitine is classified as vitamin-like, although it is often referred to as being an amino acid. Maybe that is because two amino acids are involved in its synthesis: lysine forms its backbone and methionine donates a methyl group. Its synthesis also requires vitamin C, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, and iron. Carnitine transports long-chain fatty acids into the cell’s mitochondria where the fatty acids are burned (beta-oxidation) to produce energy. Acetyl-L-Carnitine is a special form of carnitine that can donate its acetyl group to choline, to form the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. As an excitatory neurotransmitter, acetylcholine increases brain speed and helps with memory. A vegetarian diet may be low in carnitine.

B-COMPLEX
  • B-vitamins are important for energy production through carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism.
  • The B-complex in BrainGO! consists of vitamins B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacinamide), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cyanocobalamin), and Folate (folic acid). They are primarily used for energy production as coenzymes in the Krebs Cycle (Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle) and Electron Transport Chain, that leads to ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) production. B-vitamins are used in the metabolism of carbohydrates (starch and sugars), protein (amino acids) and lipids (fatty acids). A vegetarian diet may be low in vitamin B12.

CHOLINE
  • Choline is used in the production of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, which helps with memory.
  • Choline is a structural component of lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) in membrane phospholipids and the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. As an excitatory neurotransmitter, acetylcholine increases brain speed and helps with memory. In the phospholipid form (phosphatidylcholine), it is important to the structure of all cell membranes, plasma lipoproteins, and pulmonary surfactant.

L-TYROSINE
  • Tyrosine is an amino acid that is converted to excitatory neurotransmitters, leading to increased mental and physical performance.
  • Tyrosine is classified as a nonessential amino acid. It can be converted from the essential amino acid, phenylalanine. Tyrosine is converted to the excitatory catecholamine neurotransmitters (dopa, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine), thyroid hormones, and melanin (skin pigment). There is evidence that supplemental tyrosine improves physical performance, memory, and learning, during times when people are experiencing extreme environmental conditions, intense exercise, or psychological stress.

VINPOCETINE
  • Vinpocetine has many benefits, including enhanced cerebral blood flow, that lead to improvements in memory.
  • Vinpocetine is a synthetic derivative of apovincamine, a compound found in the periwinkle plant, Vinca minor. Vinpocetine’s memory effects may be due to indirect or direct cholinergic activity, augmented norepinephrine effects on cortical cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), and increased turnover of brain catecholamines. Orally, vinpocetine is used for enhancing memory, improving cerebral blood flow, improving cerebral oxygen and glucose utilization, protecting against age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease, treating cerebrovascular disease, preventing post-stroke morbidity and mortality, decreasing stroke risk, treating menopausal symptoms, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), seizure disorders, and preventing motion sickness.

VITAMIN C
  • Vitamin C is an important antioxidant, is necessary for carnitine and collagen synthesis, and promotes resistance to infection.
  • Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin with antioxidant properties. It is necessary for carnitine and collagen synthesis. It is essential for the oxidation of tyrosine, the conversion of folate to its reduced form (tetrahydrofolate), the formation of norepinephrine from dopamine, the conversion of tryptophan to 5-HTP, and facilitates nonheme (plant source) iron absorption. Vitamin C promotes resistance to infection via its involvement with leukocytes and interferon production.